According to Paul Fain:
competency-based education… looks nothing like traditional college classes. Perhaps the method’s most revolutionary, and controversial, contribution is a changed role for faculty. Instructors don’t teach, because there are no lectures or any other guided path through course material.
Aside from the narrow view of what constitutes “teaching”, this paints only one version of what competency-based education might look like. Competencies refer to the milestones by which stakeholders assess progress, thus constraining the entry and endpoints but not the paths by which those milestones might be reached. Students could all traverse the same path but at their own pace, or they might follow any of a finite set of well-defined trajectories prescribed by instructional designers. They could also be free to chart their own course through open terrain, whether advised by a personal guide or a generic tour book, perhaps even with prerecorded audio or video highlighting landmarks. Recommended or mandated paths can then be tailored to students’ needs, experiences, and preferences. The extra degrees of freedom mean that competency-based education actually has the potential to enable much more personalized guidance than traditional time-based formats.